Countries operate as separate political entities and are presumably all monarchies, ruled by daimyō who stand equally in rank with the Hidden Villages' Kage. The Naruto world is similar to feudal Japan in many aspects; those countries maintain balance between themselves through nothing but power. Treaties are periodically signed, but they are generally not worth much more than the paper they are written on.
Five Great Shinobi Nations
Land of Air
Main article: Land of Air
The Land of Air (大気の国, Taiki no Kuni) is a small nation bordered by the Land of Earth to the north, the Land of Wind to the south, and the Land of Stone to the west. Despite its size, it is one of the wealthiest regions in the mainland due to its affinity for trade and it being the world's largest producer of kunai, shuriken, and other metal tools typically utilized by shinobi. Due to its substantial fortune, the Land of Air enjoys a state of technological advancement that far surpasses that of the other nations. However, like the vast majority of countries in the known world, the Land of Air is led by a daimyō known as the Air Daimyō.
Land of Chasms
Main article: Land of Chasms
The Land of Chasms (谷間の国, Tanima no Kuni) is a nation that was formed by Kōdai Keikoku and shinobi who wanted to escape war. Located to the southwest of the Land of Wind, near proximity to the Land of Wisdom. This country is home to Keikokugakure, a large villaged formed by Kōdai, the native clans, and the shinobi that Kōdai recruited.
Land of Cyclones
Main article: Land of Cyclones The Land of Cyclones (飃の国, Tsumujikaze no Kuni) is a small nation formed by Ryu Namikaze. It is governed by a Daimyō known as Typhoon Lord, Cyclone Lord in anime, and is located on the north of the Land of Wind and west of the Land of Earth. The country flanks the Land of Tornadoes from the west, much like it ally the Land of Air does from the east. Of these three smaller nations the Land of Cyclones is the the largest and has claimed to be most prosperous. Additionally, the Land of Cyclones hosts the minor shinobi village, Taifūgakure.
Land of Focus
Main article: Land of Focus
The Land of Focus (病巣のくに, Byōsō no Kuni) is a minor country within the Fanon Universe of Naruto. It is ruled by the Focus Daimyō. It is located on large island that lies northeast of the mainland. It is home to the founders of the Land of Focus, the Okasu Clan, as well as the banished members of the Sukiru and Zadanka clans.
Land of Grain
Main article: Land of Grain
The Land of Grain (粒のくに Tsubu no Kuni) is a small country which exists in between the villages known as Takigakure and Otogakure, the former existing at its west, while the latter at its right. By the south, the country is also bordered by the entirety of the Land of Fire. Though very small compared to most of the greatest Shinobi nations, the Land of Grain is regarded quite highly for its agricultural produce, particularly within the staple crops that they produce, including grain of all variants. It is led by a single Daimyō, known as the Grain Daimyō (粒の大名 Tsubu no Daimyō).
Land of Hope
Main article: Land of Hope
The Land of Hope (希望くに, Kibō no Kuni) is an island country south of the Land of Lightning, northwest of the Land of Water, and east of the Land of Hot Water. The Hope country has inland forestry and hazardous brush covered mountains conceal huge animals and unknown poisons. The landscape is marked by tall mountains peak, huge lush fields, and forest tapestries home to rare fruit and vegetables. Being in a rather tempered climate, the range is limited in the area is very accustomed to blisteringly hot days and solemn, cool nights.
Land of Merchants
Main article: Land of Merchants The Land of Merchants (業者の国, Gyōsha no Kuni) is a nation composed of the most northwestern islands within the Oniga-shotō, located in the southern sea near the Land of Tea and between Haha Island and O'uzu Island. As its name states, it was founded by several merchants and serves as the basis of commerce in much of the Shinobi world, for both good and bad. It was formed following the end of the Fourth Shinobi World War and quickly established itself as a major power in the world scene.
Land of Mountains
Main article: Land of Mountains
The Land of Mountains (山の国, Yama no Kuni) is a member of the Great Shinobi Countries and is located to the south of the Land of Fire and the Land of Wind. It is very mountainous, as the name suggests. It has two great rivers and hundreds of ravines. It was a primitive land until shortly after the Third Shinobi World War, when Ryun Uchiha united its clans to form his village. The Land of Mountains is one of the largest and most powerful countries in the shinobi world. Its main hidden village, Yamagakure, is the home of a revived Uchiha clan. The Land of Mountains is appropriately oriented towards the element of earth, typically having very dark and rainy weather. While not the largest country, it has the second largest largest hidden village.
Land of the Night
Main article: Land of the Night
The Land of the Night (夜の国, Yoru no Kuni) is an island which is situated just to the east of the Land of Water. It was formed by refugees from the latter, who were fleeing persecution from their citizens during civil wars which wracked the country. The skies surrounding this island are perpetually overcast, which result in the country having cold, dark, and dank weather. Oddly enough, however, it rains far less in the Land of the Night than one would think for an island that is eternally covered by clouds. In addition, the island is surrounded by whirlpools created by a very powerful ninjutsu, such that no one is able to get in or out of the country unless the whirlpools are temporarily halted.
Land of Predators
Main article: Land of Predators
The Land of Predators (牙捕食, Hoshoku no Kuni) is a country to the north of the Land of Fangs. There was, at one point, tension between these to countries because of the animals located in the Land of Predators were killing off to many inhabitants from the Land of Fangs. The situation however was defused when Sōsōgakure was created and they took control of the beasts.
Land of Sunshine
Main article: Land of Sunshine
The Land of Sunshine (陽光の国,Yōkō no Kuni) is a nation formed by the Ryou and Suzu Clan. Its Its government leader is Bashi, the Sunshine Daimyō. Six years after the formation of Konohagkaure and two years after the Third Shinobi World War, the hidden village Hakkingakure was formed by Ryou Clan, later on there distant cousins the Susumu Clan and many others came and the village flourished.
Land of Tornadoes
Main article: Land of Tornadoes
The Land of Tornados (竜巻のくに, Tatsumaki no Kuni) is located in between the Lands of Earth and Wind. The village itself is surrounded by a giant whirlwind (the technique of its first Chief), and it takes about five days to get to the village from any border, which is in the middle. A river makes the border between it and the Land of Wind. The home of the Beetles is also in this land. It will border the smaller land in between the Land of Earth and this country.
Land of Whispering Bones
Main article: Land of Whispering Bone
Shigokatsu (骨私語の国, Shigokatsu no Kuni, Literally meaning: Land of Whispering Bone) is located north of the Land of Fire between the Hidden Sound and Land of Lightning. This country does not have a Kage. Instead this land is ruled by a family boss known as the Oyabun. Senior advisor and headquarters chief aid in the running of the country and report directly to the Oyabun. Other important officials in the governmental structure are the wakagashira and shateigashira.